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I look at life with detachment and distance, like a window shopper. Not only I study the window but also my own reflections in it.

String Theory Is More Logical To Explain Particle Transformations than Standard Model

Sunday, July 27, 2008 0 comments

Round 2: Elephant=Monkey X Chimpanzee2

This is round 2 of our discussions about the differences and similarities between the String Theory and the Quantum Field Theories(as epitomised by Standard Model. Click Here For Round1
Elementary Particles emit or absorb other particles(e.g. Force Particles like Bosons) without themselves loosing identity. These may also split up into two or three different particles. In Quantum Field Theories (epitomised by Standard Model) this is intuitively difficult to understand within the scope of this theory. I had earlier pointed it out:-
There must be some type of "Conservation" for a process to be called a change/transmutation.
In fact science is about only those changes where conservation is observed - rest isn't science.
In disappearance of a neutron and in its place appearance of a proton + an electron and an anti-neutrino - the quarks(that make-up both neutron and proton) and leptons(electron and neutrino) are conserved, so is mass/energy. Scientist use a more rigorous approach to call it conservation of quantum numbers that they assign to properties of these fundamental particles.
But in appearance of neutrino just out of "nothing"(Space) there appears to be no conservation here. Perhaps our knowledge of that level of particle structure is incomplete. May be the sub-space entities out of which space is structured (as I propose in this blog), are conserved, in transmutation of space into a neutrino.

For details See my post The More It Changes The More It Stays The Same.
I had also argued on similar lines about a Muon (a fundamental lepton) decaying into a mu-neutrino + an electron and a positron - all three fundamental leptons of different families. Please see my post - Being Fundamental is No Fun' and also on more fundamental issues in my post - 'Elephant = Monkey X Chimpanzee Squared'. But String Theory Beautifully tackles these since it says that particles that we see are only different modes of vibration of strings. Thus a string can change the mode of vibration or split into two strings with different vibrations or else two strings may combine. Neat! I have no issues with it. In fact this is what I have all along been saying in my hypothesis.
This round again goes to String Theory!!! Its ahead of Standard Model by 2-0.

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Standard Model makes sense only after Renormalization

Thursday, July 24, 2008 0 comments

Round 1: Renormalization

What are the similarities and differences between String Theories and The Quantum Field Theories(epitomised by Standard Model) of the Particle Physics?. Which one is better in different aspects? Brace for a series of posts on this! Lets look at the procedure of Renormalization.

In Quantum Field Theories of which Standard Model is the epitome, behaviour of particles at very small distances of the order of particles it self - is not known. As I wrote earlier:-
"The equations Scientists write to describe the sub-atomic particles is in too dense a mathematics, even beyond a BS majoring in Mathematics. These equations in raw, strictly theoretical form, give infinite or nonsensical results or are unsolvable - capable of no result. Like too smart an Accountant fudging his books till clean looking figures are achieved, Scientists coax an answer out of these equations through largely empirical mathematical operations called renormalization.
For example the first theory that started the chain of Particle Physics, was Electro-Dynamics propounded by Dirac. While the equation was supposed to describe mechanics of electrons, one of the results showed the world to be filled with negative energy positrons.
This is obviously not the thing we observe in reality.
One of the justification for re-normalization is that the measured parameters of sub-atomic particles are the net observable values and intrinsic values are much different.
For detailed justification, please see my earlier post on this - 'A Tycoon Surrounded By A Bevy OF Expensive Bunnies'.
This is highly unsatisfactory way. But the Standard Model did give verifiable answers. The fact remains that this model cannot deal with phenomenon at small distances of space-time.
String Theory is a theory of phenomena at sub-particle distances. Such Renormalization is therefore not needed. Thus the String Theory wins over the Standard Model in explaining phenomena at such distances!!
And The First Round Goes To STRING THEORY!!!

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Stringy Flavours in The Ice-Cream Parlour

Saturday, July 19, 2008 1 comments

How many dimensions of space-time a string theory predicts varies in different flavours of the theory. It started with a "Bosonic" model which explained only Boson Particles (Particles that explain the behaviour of Forces), no Fermions (Other particles that explain the material world). This theory was consistent only in 26 dimensions. (How cool!! These can be labelled from A to Z. Most scientist make their best contribution around this age. Einstein published his paper on General relativity at this age. My son was also born when I was 26 year old ;-)
Bosonic String Theory had some unacceptable predictions. Other theories followed to improve upon this, add Fermions and remove other inconsistencies. These are called by unimaginative names (quite rare in Physics) like I; IIA; IIB; HO & HE. These flavours agree on the number of dimensions - a perfect 10. (People of my age would recall Bo Derek!)
Efforts are on to integrate these flavours into a theory called M-Theory (Mother Of all Theories). Which requires an 11 Dimensional Space-Time. But to retain the advantages of earlier flavours, one of the dimension is assumed to be compacted (curled-up) into a small circle leaving only 10 significant dimensions.(Must have been invented by a Cricket-playing scientist : - where a team is complete if there are 11 players, but after 10 players are out, the 11th does not get to play.)
So how do we encounter only 4 dimensions, when the theory needs 10. The other 6 are compacted into a ball. Each point on our 4-dimensional space has a finite but minuscule 6 dimensional curled-up ball. These curled up dimensions would need very high energies (of the order available at the time of Big-Bang) to open-up, hence are beyond our perception.
What are differences and similarities between String Theory and Standard Model.
About that in subsequent posts.
Till Then. Enjoy the Ice-Cream!!

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Threading Through String Theory

Thursday, July 17, 2008 0 comments

So what are the strings attached to String Theory:

  • Instead of building blocks of atomic and sub-atomic particles as per Standard Model, string theory says that these particles are only manifestations of string-like entities vibrating in different modes and different dimensions of space.

  • The strings is only a conceptual crutch - these are not material. Strings do not have a structure of their own. Strings are one-dimensional instead of particles which are point entities. Length of string is of the order of Planck-length (10-32Cm.). But longer strings are postulated when weak-interactions are dealt with.

  • Some particles are manifestation of strings in loops, some of open-ended strings. Particle interactions are explained by cutting/combining and change in vibration modes of the strings.

  • There are four forces of nature (Strong Force, Weak Force, Electro-magnetism and Gravity) which are mediated by Boson-particles as per Standard-Model. String Theory says even these Bosons are a manifestation of string vibrations in various dimensions. Hence even Forces are explained by Strings, Vibrations and Dimensions.

  • The Time-space which is only 4 dimensional as per Relativity, but has many more dimensions in String Theory. These dimensions are dictated by the mathematics of the String Model to explain the behaviour of four forces etc. Number of dimensions are different in different flavours of String-Theories. Dimensions other than four seen by us are curled up into miniscule length. I would discuss this in next post.

C U Soon!!

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String Theory in More Than 2 Mins

Sunday, July 13, 2008 0 comments

Now that I have started giving you videos, please checkout on this site full of videos on similar subjects: Videos on String Theory in more than 2 minutes

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String Theory in less than 2 mins


There was a contest on youtube to explain string theory in 2 minutes. The duckie video is the best and simple. The pronunciation is a bit foreign:

Its really good - I also learnt a lot in two minutes. CU Soon!!

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